The fertile surface of a bolete is made up of pores
Boletes are "mushroom-like" in general appearance, but instead of gills, the fertile surface consists of pores. The fleshy cap contains tubes which are downward facing and open at the base. These openings are called "pores". The spores will be released from these pore openings.
A spine fungus, Hydnum repandum
This group includes the leathery, tough or woody brackets, as well as mushroom-like fungi and crusts that have pores or woody gill-like plates instead of the soft gill or pore structure of agarics or boletus.
Some will have stems (eg Red-staining Polypore, Amauroderma rude), but many will consist of a bracket or fan-shaped woody body adhered to dead or living wood (eg White Punk, Laetiporus portentosus). Some brackets will be thin, whilst others will be many centimetres thick.
A puffball breaks the surface of bitumen
There are several groups contained in the puffball fungi category. Soft, simple puffballs are common in grasslands and forests, with some preferring compacted areas like roadside verges. Spores are contained in a "skin" appearing as a ball-like structure. When mature, the outer skin punctures, breaks, or falls away to expose the spores to the elements. Spores are distributed either by wind, rain, running water or animal movement.
Variations within the puffball group are Earth Stars, which have a double layer of tissue, the outer layer of which splits to expose the central puffball containing the spores. There are also hard-skinned puffballs and stalked puffballs.
A very pretty "coral" fungus
Coral fungi include simple or branched clubs as well as large complex coral-like structures. Most species grow on the ground, and the fertile tissue covers all but the stem.
I have seen coral fungi growing in soil ranging from swampy, moist rainforest, alpine grasslands to dry woodland, in just about all the colours of the rainbow.
Plectania campylospora, Brown Forest Cup
The cup fungi form a large group that contains species in which the fertile layer is cup-shaped or flat to convex. The spores are contained on the inner or upper surface of the fungus.
A bird's-nest fungus, Cyathus stercoreus
These are tiny fungi fruiting bodies that are typically shaped like a bird's nest. They produce their spores in hard-skinned packages, called peridioles, which are exposed to the weather when the top of the "nest" breaks open. Generally, bird's-nest fungi grow on herbivore dung or rotting wood, and have the spore-containing peridioles distributed by raindrops splashing them out of the "nest".
Auricularia cornea is a jelly fungus
Aseroe rubra, Starfish Stinkhorn, and "eggs"
Stinkhorns are a distinctive group of fungi having bizarre forms accompanied by strong, unpleasant odours. The fruting bodies develop in egg-like sacs that are ruptured by the spore-bearing receptacle as it rapidly expands at maturity.
The spore-bearing gleba is a foul-smelling brown to greenish-brown slime that is eagerly consumed by flies and other insects, which in turn, distribute the spores.
These strange and often offensive fungi will pop up in mulched gardens and lawns, creating an intriguing display. I have catalogued some of my stinkhorn finds here.
As you can see, fungi are not just your average "mushroom". Observing and studying fungi can be a very rewarding and fascinating hobby. It is predicted that the majority of Australia's fungi have not yet been studied, so it is quite likely that amateur fungi enthusiasts could play an important role in recording new species.